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Welding consisted of a hazardous process involving high temperatures and generating toxic fumes in the process. Therefore, welders were exposed to many occupational hazards. In the study, oxidative stress and DNA damage of 35 welders, in parallel with 25 control subjects working in Dhaka city was investigated. Oxidative stress level was measured by using five biochemical parameters such as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), phospholipid hydroperoxide (PLHP), total antioxidant status (TAS), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and vitamin C level in serum as well as DNA damage by alkaline comet assay. The welders were divided into two group; group I (≤10 years) and group II ( >10 years) on the basis of the duration of welding (years). Serum TBARS level (8.0 ± 0.4 vs. 4.0 ± 0.2 nmol MDA equivalent ml-1) and PLHP level (9.0 ± 0.9 vs. 5.0 ± 0.2 nmol ml-1) significantly (p<0.001) increased in welders compared to control subjects. Levels of TAS (0.3 ± 0.02 vs. 0.7 ± 0.03 mmol l-1), SOD activity (74 ± 2.0 vs. 94 ± 0.6 inhibition rate %) and vitamin C (0.4 ± 0.04 vs. 0.8 ± 0.05 mg dl-1) significantly (p<0.001) decreased in welders compared to control subjects. Elevated levels of TBARS, PLHP with decreased levels of TAS, SOD activity and vitamin C indicated that the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was higher in welders than that of control subjects. These results suggested that the exposure of welder to welding generated oxidative stress. TBARS level of welders of Group II was significantly higher (p<0.01) than that of welders of Group I (8.0 ± 0.3 vs. 10 ± 0.8 nmol MDA equivalent ml-1). The mean TBARS, mean PLHP, mean SOD Activity,  mean vitamin C values significantly differs among smoker control group (SC), non-smoker control group (NSC), smoker welder group (SW) and non-smoker welder group (NSW). This results also supported by the result of comet assay, which indicated that higher DNA damage occurs in welders than that of control subjects. It was found that 15.6% and 6.5% cell’s DNA were moderately and severely damaged in control subjects, whereas in the welders cell’s DNA were 28.2% moderately and 21.0% severely damaged, respectively. When duration of welding (years) was considered, a modest increased in oxidative stress and DNA damage was associated with the higher exposure to welding than that of lower exposure. The evaluated effect of smoking on oxidative stress and DNA damage among all subjects showed that smokers had more DNA damage than non-smokers. In this study correlation was found between oxidative stress and DNA damage of the welders with the duration of exposure of welding fumes and smoking habits of welders.

Keywords: Welders, oxidative stress, DNA damage, comet assay


Communities around the world rely on concrete as a safe, strong and simple building material. It is used in all types of construction; from domestic work to multi-storey office buildings and shopping complexes. Despite the common usage of concrete, few people are aware of the considerations involved in designing strong, durable and high quality concrete. For this reason, it is important to know the properties of plain concrete. The study was undertaken to know the tensile strength of plain concrete and to investigate the effect of bamboo fibre reinforcement in the concrete. For this purpose, cement, sand, brick chips, stone chips and bamboo fibre were used with different proportions (1:2:4, 1:2.5.5 and 1:3:6) to cast concrete cylinder.The concrete cylinders were tested by the compression testing machine to observe their strength after required curing. Highest strength was obtained for stone chips rather than brick chips. Further cylinders were casted with bamboo fibre. It was found that the tensile strength began to climb up and it was maximum for stone chips containing 1% bamboo fiber. Beyond 1% bamboo fibre the tensile strength tends to decrease for both the aggregates. Among three mix proportions, 1:2:4 was more significant as it showed highest strength in all cases.

Keywords: Concrete, Brick chips, Stone chips, Bamboo fibre, Tensile strength.


Intimate partner violence (IPV) is one of the complex issuewhich is difficult to measure despite its prevalence in the society. Obviously, the existence and its correlates vary from culture to culture. This study aims to investigate the situation of IPV in Bangladesh and identify its correlates using Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) 2007. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to identify the correlates of IPV. Data analysis suggests that 50.84% of the respondents were exposed to any type of IPV during their lifetime. Multinomial logistic regression analysis reveals that the women having only boy child and also the women having both types of children (boy and girl) had more likelihood of being affected physically than the childless womenwhen compared with no violence. Furthermore, the likelihood of sexual violence was more for the women having both types of childrenthan the childless respondents.Non-Muslim women hadmore likelihood of being affected by all types of violence than the Muslim women. The rich women had more likelihood of being sufferedby sexual violence than the poorest women. The likelihood of infliction by both physical and sexual violenceamong the poorest women wasless than their counterparts when compared with no violence.The women who were the wives of farmers had morelikelihood to suffer from sexual violence, and both physical and sexual violence than the women who were the wives of service holders and businessmen.The primary educated women had less likelihood to experience sexual violence than the uneducated womenwhen compared with no violence. The wives of the primary educated partners had more likelihood to be tortured both physically and sexually than the wives of the uneducated partners.

Keywords: Intimate partner violence, Multinomial Logistic Regression, Demographic and Health Survey.


The study assesses the profitability of potato cultivation in some selected areas of Sylhet district in Bangladesh. A total of 50 farmers were selected from different villages of Fenchugong upazila in Sylhet district. Both tabular and descriptive techniques were used to analyze the collected data. Average family size was 6.24 which was found to be higher in large farm followed by small and medium farms. On an average the dependency ratio was 3.22. The literacy in the study area was higher than that of national average of Bangladesh. Agriculture was found to be dominating occupation among the inhabitants. On an average 50% of the total income obtained from potato production. The annual savings of the sampled farmers was found to be higher in large farm followed by medium and small farm. On an average hectare-1 cost of production of potato was Tk. 1, 94,114. The average hectare-1 yield of potato was 17194 Kg. The highest yield was obtained by large farms (18291 kg ha-1) while it was the lowest in small farms (16804 kg ha-1). When all costs were taken into account the average net return was observed to be Tk. 81336. On an average BCR was the highest in large farms (1.68) appearing lowest in small farms (1.34). The study identified some major problems like non-availability of quality seeds and high price, low market price, shortage of human labor, lack of storage facilities etc. The farmers opined that potato production would be economically viable if quality seeds with affordable price, marketing facilities with standard price, storage facilities, fertilizer and insecticides with reasonable price are ensured.

Keywords: Potato production, profitability, constraints


The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of different stocking densities on growth performances and production potential of monosex tilapia (Oreochromisniloticus) under cage culture conditions for a period of 120 days from 20 August to 16 December 2016 in Dekarhaor of Sunamganj district. Three stocking densities under the experiment were maintained viz. 35, 40 and 45 fish m-3 and designated as treatment 1 (T1), treatment 2 (T2) and treatment 3 (T3), respectively and each having three replicates. Stocked fry of tilapia were fed commercial floating diet at a decreasing rate of 10-5% of body weight at thrice daily until the previous day of harvest. Average initial weight of the fingerlings was 11.0 g. Water quality parameters like water temperature, transparency, dissolved oxygen, pH, total alkalinity and ammonia nitrogen were found within favourable aquaculture range. Survival rate of tilapia varied from 91.40 to 96.10% and the highest survival rate was found in T2 (96.10%) followed by T3 (95.40%) and T1 (91.40%). Gross yield of tilapia obtained from all treatments ranged from 5.60 to 6.50 kg m-3 with the highest yield (6.50 kg m-3) in T2 and the lowest yield (5.60 kg m-3) in T1. Daily weight gain of tilapia was recorded as 1.36, 1.31 and 1.10 g in T1, T2 and T3, respectively. The highest (Tk. 383.94 m-3) net profit obtained in T2 followed by T3 (Tk. 337.10 m-3) and T1 (Tk. 285.91 m-3). Cost benefit ratio (BCR) was also the highest in T2 (1.97) and the lowest in T1 (1.74). Result of the study indicates that tilapia stocking density of 40 no. m-3 is better among three treatments in respect of survival rate, growth, fish yield and economic return. Therefore, the farmers could be suggested to rear tilapia at lower stocking density (40 no. m-3) in cages to get higher growth, survival and production in a short period of time.

Keywords: Cage farming, stocking density, growth performance, survival rate, production


The study was carried out to assess the fishing gears used, their catch composition and their effect on fish diversity in Dekarhaorof Sunamganj district from September 2015 to August 2016. A total of 20 types of fishing gears under nets, traps, hooks and lines, wounding gear and fish aggregating devices were recorded during study period. Considering fishing nets the highest and the lowest CPUE (kg gear-1day-1) were 4.67 (berjal) and 1.56 (thelajal), respectively. Of the traps, the highest and the lowest catch per unit effort (CPUE) were 2.3 (borshi) and 0.09 (plastic chai), respectively. It was observed that huge amount of fishes were caught by seine net (berjal) and gill net(current jal), and the rare species are damaged through this bulk catches. Seine net and gill nets are the most detrimental gears compared to others. A total of 51 fish species belonging to 8 orders under 20 families and 32 genera were recorded. Twenty one (21) species out of 51 were found threatened. Among the threatened fishes, 8 species were vulnerable (VU), 10 endangered (EN) and 3 critically endangered (CR). Abundant fish species were Puntiusticto (titputi), Mystus tengara(tengra), Amblypharyngodon mola(mola), Mastacembelus armatus(baim), Macrognathus pancalus (guchibaim), Nandus nandus (bheda), Glossogobiusgiuris (baila), Macrobrachium malcolmsonii (ichha), etc. Order-wise catch composition shows that Cypriniformes (33%) was the most dominant order followed by Perciformes (25%), Siluriformes (22%) and others. It is observed that availability of fishes in the haor is gradually reducing every year due to different causes. If itcontinues in this way, haor will be devoid of fishes and other organisms very soon. Therefore, the government should immediately take appropriate initiatives to protect the biodiversity and ecosystem of the haor for the greater interest of the nation.

Keywords: Fishing gears, fish species, catch composition, fish diversity, haor


The investigation was conducted on the livelihood status of fishers in Dekarhaor of Sunamganj in Bangladesh for a period of 12 months from June 2013 to May 2014. A total 40 fishers were randomly selected and data were collected from them through direct interview. Focus group discussions were carried out by a previously made checklist. The result showed that the annual income of fishermen varied from BDT 34900 to 176100 with a mean income of BDT 60566.67±23189.27. Maximum (72.5%) fishers were low income levels (BDT 40000-60000) and trying to shift their professions to other subsidiary professions. Relatively middle age group (31 to 45 years) dominated in all study areas. Muslim fishermen are the most dominant in the study area. Average family size was (6.875) persons and majority of joint family with members ranging from 6 to 11. The highest percentage (57%) fishers were illiterate due to economic crises and lack of awareness about education. Maximum (41.15%) fishers’ children were found up to primary level, whereas 29.1% not schooling of children categories and 11.98% children dropped out of school before completing their primary education. Housing and sanitation conditions of the fishermen were not well developed. Most of the fishers get their health services from village doctors and upazila health complex. Women participated in various income generating activities to improve their livelihood along with the household activities. Based on various livelihood parameters, it can be concluded that fishermen are leading very poor state of lives. Community based aquatic resource management strategies should be undertaken with a view to enhance fish production for improve the livelihood condition of the fishers dwelling in the Dekarhaorarea of Bangladesh.

Keywords: Livelihood, Dekarhaor, Fisherman, Questionnaire Interview, Focus Group Discussion.


The experiment was conducted to assess weight loss of onion bulbs in storage due to fungi in the laboratory of the Department of Plant Pathology and Seed Science, Sylhet Agricultural University, Sylhet. A total of six onion entries where four Indian viz., Accession 1, Accession 2, Accession 3 and Pusa red, and two deshi viz. Faridpuri and Zitka were tested. The experiment was arranged in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. Fungal disease development on stored onion bulbs was observed at 45 days of storage (DOS). Three important storage fungi namely Aspergillusniger, Penicilliumspp. and Fusariumoxysporumwere found to be predominant that caused black mould, blue mould and Fusarium bulb rot disease, respectively. All entries were found to be susceptible to the storage fungi. The lowest disease incidence was found in Zitka variety (10.34%) where as the highest was in Pusa red (26.57%) variety. Black mould disease showed the highest disease incidence among the three diseases. Percent weight loss was recorded three times with 15 days interval of DOS. Weight losses of all entries were significantly different at 15 days of interval in storage condition. Pusa red variety showed the highest (35.7%) weight loss at 45 days of storage where the lowest (8.7%) was recorded in Zitka. All Indian entries showed higher weight loss compared to deshi entries. Significant and positive correlation was found (r = 0.885*) between disease incidence and weight loss.

Keywords: Allium cepa, storage fungi, disease incidence, weight loss, onion


The main objective of the study was to assess the need of training for the haor farmers on different aspects of Boro rice production practices. Twelve yield contributing production practices of rice were taken as the bases for training need assessment. A total of 80 Boro rice farmers of Tahirpurupazila (administrative unit) of Sunamganj district were randomly selected and data were collected from them before and after training imparted using well-structured interview schedule during July – September, 2015 and May – July, 2016. The result revealed that haor farmers had gaps in all the 12 practices but significant gaps were identified in respect of the application of gypsum (96%), TSP (39%) and MoP (32%) fertilizers in the main field and urea fertilizer in the seed bed (95%). However, all gaps were reduced to a significant level from 30.67% to 13.00% through offering training. Training increased not only the resources use efficiency of the farmers but also the yield of BRRI dhan28 and BRRI dhan29 with an average of 17%.

Keywords: Training need, Practice gap, Boro rice, Yield gap, Haor


An experiment was carried out at the field laboratory of Horticulture Department, Sylhet Agricultural University during the winter season from October 2013 to March 2014 with a view to evaluate fruit and seed production potentiality tomato genotypes.Eight tomato genotypes namely C-11, C-21, C-41, C-51, C-71, FP-5,WP-10 and HT-025 were used for this study. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block (RCB) Design with three replications. A remarkable variation was observed among the tomato genotypes at the seedling stage of hypocotyls color, stem length, root length and number of leaves at1st inflorescences of seedlings etc. The genotype C-41 produced the highest number of fruits (48.00plant-1) but its corresponding individual fruit weight was the lowest (34.33 g). The lowest number of fruits plant-1 washarvested from the line WP-10 (22.33plant-1), and it had the highest individual fruit weight (66.67 g). Significant variation was observed in weight of fruit plant-1. The highest fruit yield plant-1 wasrecorded from the genotype HT-025 (2.02 kgplant-1) and the lowest was recorded from the line FP-5 (1.17 kgplant-1). Corresponding hectare-1 fruityield was the highest inHT025 (68.68 tones) followed by the line C11 (68.0 tones). The highest number of seedsfruit-1 was counted from the genotype C-51 (85.42) very closely followed by C-11 (81.67). The genotype C-41 produced the lowest number of seeds (49.28 fruit-1) identical to that of C-21 (51.72). The genotype HT-025 had the highest 1000-seed weight (2.90 g) which wasidentical to that of C-41 (2.80 g). The lowest 1000-seed weight was recorded from WP10 (2.20 g). Seed yield plant-1 was varied from 3.64 g to 9.41 g. Among the genotypes, C-11 produced the maximum amount of seeds (319.94 kg ha-1) and lowest seed production recorded from WP10 (123.76 kg ha-1).

Keywords: Genotype, tomato, winter, Solanum lycopersicon L


An experiment was conducted at the farm of the Bangladesh Agricultural Development Corporation (BADC), Khadimpara, Sylhet 3100 during the period from August to November 2014 to see the effect of K, S and Zn application on the performance of growth, yield and yield contributing characters of BRRI dhan56 under the acidic soil in Sylhet region. The experiment consisted of eight treatments viz, Control, K80, S12, Zn1.8, K80S12, K80Zn1.8, S12Zn1.8 and K80S12Zn1.8. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. Data were taken on plant height, number of tillers hill-1, panicle length, grains panicle-1, 1000-grain weight, grain and straw yields. Pre and post-harvest soilstatus was also analyzed to know the status due to K,S and Zn application. Result revealed that all the characters except 1000-grain weight were affected significantly due to application of K, S and Zn.The treatment K80S12Zn1.8 produced the highest plant height (100.40 cm), effective tillers hill-1 (8.13), longest panicle (27.87 cm) and grains panicle-1 (146.60). The highest grain and straw yield of 4.38 and 6.03 t ha-1, respectively was produced from the treatment K80S12Zn1.8. The lowest performance was observed in the control treatment for all parameters. The soil analyses showed that the nutrient content in post-harvest soils under fertilizer applied soils wereslightly higher in comparison to initial soil.

Keywords: Acid soil, BRRI dhan56, Fertilizer, Growth,T. aman season, Yield


An experiment was conducted during November 2013 to March 2014 at the experimental field of Sylhet Agricultural University (SAU), Sylhet to observe the differences in relation to seed colour, cotyledon colour, seed shape, flower colour, petiole and inflorescence length, pod shape and size, yield performances etc. among the five lablab bean genotypes viz., SB003, BP003, SB008 SB010 and IPSA Sheem-2. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications.The genotypes SB003 and SB008 had reddish brown seed coat colour while it was reddish for BP003 and black for SB010 and BARI Sheem-1. Among the genotypes 100 dry seed weight was ranged from 30.00 g (BARI Sheem-1) to 41.30 g (SB003). Variation in pod and seed yield potentiality was also found among five lablab bean genotypes. The genotype SB008 produced the maximum number of pods plant-1 (263.3) followed by BP003 (256.3) but plant-1 pod yield was maximum for the genotype BP003 (1.78 kg) followed by SB008 (1.68 kg). This variation was due to the individual pod weight. The highest pod yield was recorded in the genotype BP003 (11.86 t ha-1) while it was the lowest in the genotype SB003 (9.0 t ha-1). For seed production potentiality, the genotype SB008 produced highest amount of seed plant-1 (242.97 g) since it produced the maximum number of dry pods plant-1 (141.18).

Keywords: Lablab bean, genotypes, pod and seed yield


An attempt was made to determine the abundance and diversity of beneficial insect and spider species on Boro rice during the period of November 2013 to April 2014 and Aman rice during May to November 2014 at Agricultural Training Institute (ATI) farm in Sylhet district. A considerable number of beneficial insect and spider species namely ladybird beetle, carabid beetle, ground beetle, damselfly, mirid bug, ant, wasp, dipteran fly, lynx spider, wolf spider, jumping spider andlong-jawed spider were found abundant at all growing stages in both rice fields. The relative abundance of insect and spider species in Boro rice ranked as ladybird beetle>damselfly>ant>wolf spider>jumping spider>ground beetle>wasp>tachinid fly>lynx spider>carabid beetle>mirid bug; whereas in Aman rice it was ranked as ladybird beetle>damselfly>long-jawed spider>dipteran fly>jumping spider>lynx spider>ant>wasp>carabid beetle. Araneae order showed the highest values while Coleoptera order showed the lowest values for Diversity index and evenness in both Boro and Aman rice. Richness index was found highest in Araneae order in Boro rice and lowest in Coleoptera order in Aman rice fields. The results clearly indicate that rice ecosystem could be utilized as a great reservoir of beneficial insect and mite species and thus rice ecosystem would foster natural biological control process in rice based agro-ecosystems all over Bangladesh especially in the Sylhet region.

Keywords: Beneficial insect, rice ecosystem, biodiversity, rice season


The abundance and diversity of insect pest species was determined in boro rice field of Bangladesh Agricultural Development Corporation (BADC) farm (from November 2013 to April 2014) and in aman rice field of Agricultural Training Institute (ATI) farm (from May to November 2014)in Sylhet district. A total of 16 and 14 pest species were found in boroand aman rice field, respectively. In both rice fields, green leafhopper and white leafhopper were found as the most abundant species among all the recorded species at all rice growing stages (seedling, tillering and heading). Rice hispa was found most abundant at tillering and heading stage in boro rice, while it was abundant at heading stage in aman rice field. In boro rice field, rice bug was most abundant at heading stage and it was absent at seedling and tillering stages. Leaf roller, yellow stem borer, rice horned caterpillar, black bug were more abundant in boro rice and short-horned grasshopper, long-horned grasshopper, rice bug, and caseworm were more abundant in aman rice.In aman rice field, abundance of short-horned grasshopper gradually decreased from seedling to heading stage (35.00>11.89>8.33).In both rice fields, relative abundance (%) of green leafhopper was highest followed by white leafhopper, short-horned grasshopper, rice hispa, rice bug and others. The results indicated similar abundance and diversity of pest species in both boro and aman rice fields. Regardless of the rice seasons, the pest species green leafhopper, white leafhopper, leaf roller, yellow stem borer, caseworm, rice bug, rice hispa, rice horn caterpillar were found more prevalent.

Keywords: Rice plant, rice pest, biodiversity, rice season


A field experiment was conducted at the experimental field of Horticulture Department, Sylhet Agricultural University, Sylhet, Bangladesh to find out the suitability of tomato production during summer season of May to October, 2014. Five tomato hybrids viz., BARI hybrid tomato-3, BARI hybrid tomato-4, NHC-1, NHC-2 and NHC-3 were evaluated for tomato production during summer season under Sylhet condition. Different parameters like number of fruits plant-1, individual fruit weight, fruit length, fruit width, total soluble solids, fruit yield plant-1, etc. were significantly differed among the tomato hybrids. Significant variation in respect to fruit yield was also observed among the hybrids. The highest number of fruits plant-1 was counted from the BARI hybrid tomato-3 (25.30) followed by BARI hybrid tomato-4 (24.33). The heaviest individual fruit was observed for the NHC-2 (43.23 g) while it was the lowest for BARI hybrid tomato-3 (35.70 g). The NHC-2 hybrid had the highest fruit length (4.50 cm) and fruit width (3.40 cm). Among the hybrids maximum 5.3% total soluble solid was observed in BARI hybrid tomato-3. The hybrid, BARI hybrid tomato-4 produced the highest fruit yield (0.97 kg plant-1) followed by NHC-1 (0.91 kg plant-1). Benefit cost ratio revealed that one can earn more than four thousand taka decimal-1 by growing tomato during summer season in Sylhet region. This indicates that there is a bright scope of tomato production during summer in Sylhet region.

Keywords: Tomato hybrids, summer season, Sylhet region


Sixteen mungbean germplasms viz. Gk – 22, SMZ – 134, VC – 3669, VC – 3960 A – 88, VC – 3960 A – 89, VC – 6144, VC – 6144 (47 – 28 – 2), VC – 6148 (50 – 12), VC – 6153 –B – 20, VC – 6153 – 20P, VC – 6173, VC – 6173 B – 33, VC – 6372 – (45 – 8), VC – 6773 – B – 6, VC – 6897 and BARI Mung – 4 were screened against Cercospora leaf spot at Pulses Research Sub-Station (PRSS), Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Joydevpur, Gazipur and Regional Agricultural Research Station (RARS), Jessore, Bangladesh during 2014 under the rainfed condition. The genotypes were categorized into 0 – 8 scale to determine the differential response of Mungbean accessions to Cercospora leaf spot. On the other hand, another experiment also conducts in the same time. In another field study efficacy of three chemicals namely Score (0.2%), Secure 600WG (0.2%), Bavistin 50WP (0.15 %) and one botanical Neem leaf extract (1:1), were evaluated to find out the effective management practices for Cercospora leaf spot of Mungbean at Golapgonj, Sylhet and PRSS, Joydevpur. The plot size was 3m × 4m and the experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block design (RCBD) with three replications. Considerable variations among the genotypes were observed with respect to disease reactions, none of the genotypes were found to be highly resistant to the disease. Among the genotypes VC – 6153 – B – 20 showed the lowest disease incidence with the highest yield in both locations suggested that VC – 6153 – B – 20 may be a wonderful source of Cercospora leaf spot of Mungbean tolerance. Among all the treatments, Secure 660WG treated plots showed the lowest disease incidence with the highest yield. Hence, Secure 660WG (0.2%) may be recommended for controlling the disease of Mungbean.

Keywords: Mungbean, Cercospora Leaf Spot, genotypes, yield, fungicides


This work was conducted to review the reproductive performance of dairy cows based on the reports published elsewhere. The overall least square mean of age at puberty of crossbred dairy cow ranged from 748.71±22.5 to 752±10.9 days, overall least square mean of number of services per conception (NSC) of crossbred dairy cattle ranged from 1.33±0.2 to 2.44±0.58. Similarly, the overall mean calving interval (CI) varied from 488 to 612±4.56 days as reported by different researchers in the different agro-ecology of the country in different times. The season and year of calving had its own influence on caving interval. The least square mean of age at first calving (AFC) of crossbred dairy cow ranged from 661±14 to 1059±198 days. The age at first service correlated with the age at puberty and it depends on to the different agro-ecology of the country in different time. The overall least square mean of age at first service varied from 588 to 752±10.9 days. The overall least square mean of postpartum heat period ranged from 74.5±1.6 to 114.5±73.00 days. The duration of estrus varies according to the season, breed etc. The overall least square mean of duration of estrus ranged from 5.1±1.1 to 34±0.85 hour. Generally the reproductive performance of crossbred dairy cow in different region and different agro-ecology are relatively better than the values reported for indigenous cattle breeds.

Keywords: Age at puberty, age at first service, age at first calving, number of services per conception, calving interval, estrus duration, postpartum heat period, gestation period.


Stevia rebaudiana, a medicinal plant, is a darling gift of nature. It is well-aquainted for its non-caloric bio-sweeteners and medicinal value. Previous studies have shown that Stevia leaf contains phytochemicals which has therapeutic values such as antioxidants, antimicrobials, antidiabetics, antihypertensive, cardiotonic etc. Human nutritions exist in great content in Stevia leaves owing to its good proximate composition, mineral contents and health-promoting phytochemical constituents. Various extraction methods and techniques were used to extract, purify, characterize and analyze natural herbal sweetener, stevioside and rebaudioside, which are the chief components of sweetness. Leaves of Stevia are enriched with high content of protein, carbohydrate, some essential minerals, all indispensible amino acids except tryptophan, folic acid, vitamin C and some bioactive chemical constituents as well as palmitic and linolenic acids. Both stevioside and rebaudioside are metabolized by intestinal microorganism. Rebaudioside is transformed to steviol and finally it produces glucose and a molecule of steviol. Different scientific reports suggested no adverse side effects observed in taking stevia powder as sweeteners. Many suitable protocols have been established for in vitro regeneration of the sweetener plant Stevia. This review article flourishes the collection of basic data on Stevia plant to present the beneficial role of Stevia and its metabolites on health promoting properties.

Keywords: Stevia, leaves, sweetener, stevioside, phytochemicals


Plants are potent biochemical factories. Plant cell culture systems represent a potential renewable source of valuable medicinal compounds, flavors, fragrances, and colorants. Biotechnological applications of plant cell cultures present the most updated reviews on current techniques in this field. Various types of cultures like organ culture, shoot culture, root culture, callus culture, suspension culture play the important roles in extraction of secondary metabolite and this methods can be used in large scale production. The principal advantage of this technology is that it may provide continuous, reliable source of plant pharmaceuticals and could be used for the large scale culture of plant cells from which these metabolites can be extracted. Additionally, in the discovery of new medicines, plant cell culture technology plays an even more significant role in solving world hunger by developing agricultural crops that provide both higher yield and more resistance to pathogens and adverse environmental and climatic conditions. This callus and suspension culture methods can be able to play an important role in large scale production of bioactive secondary metabolites from plants.

Keywords: Secondary metabolite, Tissue culture, Suspension culture, Callus

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